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AVG pilots were trained by their commander Claire Chennault to exploit the advantages of their Ps , which were very sturdy, heavily armed, generally faster in a dive and level flight at low altitude, with a good rate of roll.

Another important maneuver was Lieutenant Commander John S. If a Zero latched onto the tail of one of the fighters, the two aircraft would turn toward each other.

If the Zero followed his original target through the turn, he would come into a position to be fired on by the target's wingman. This tactic was first used to good effect during the Battle of Midway and later over the Solomon Islands.

Many highly experienced Japanese aviators were lost in combat, resulting in a progressive decline in quality, which became a significant factor in Allied successes.

Unexpected heavy losses of pilots at the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway dealt the Japanese carrier air force a blow from which it never fully recovered.

The fighter pilots are very disappointed with the performance and length of sustained fire power of the F4F-4 airplanes.

The Zero fighters could easily outmaneuver and out-climb the F4F-3, and the consensus of fighter pilot opinion is that the F4F-4 is even more sluggish and slow than the F4F It is also felt that it was a mistake to put 6 guns on the F4F-4 and thus to reduce the rounds per gun.

Many of our fighters ran out of ammunition even before the Jap dive bombers arrived over our forces; these were experienced pilots, not novices.

They were astounded by the Zero's superiority: [30]. In the Coral Sea, they made all their approaches from the rear or high side and did relatively little damage because of our armor.

It also is desired to call attention to the fact that there was an absence of the fancy stunting during pull outs or approaches for attacks. In this battle, the Japs dove in, made the attack and then immediately pulled out, taking advantage of their superior climb and maneuverability.

In attacking fighters, the Zeros usually attacked from above rear at high speed and recovered by climbing vertically until they lost some speed and then pulled on through to complete a small loop of high wing over which placed them out of reach and in position for another attack.

By reversing the turn sharply after each attack the leader may get a shot at the enemy while he is climbing away or head on into a scissor if the Jap turns to meet it.

In contrast, Allied fighters were designed with ruggedness and pilot protection in mind. I had full confidence in my ability to destroy the Grumman and decided to finish off the enemy fighter with only my 7.

I turned the 20mm cannon switch to the 'off' position, and closed in. For some strange reason, even after I had poured about five or six hundred rounds of ammunition directly into the Grumman, the airplane did not fall, but kept on flying!

I thought this very odd—it had never happened before—and closed the distance between the two airplanes until I could almost reach out and touch the Grumman.

To my surprise, the Grumman's rudder and tail were torn to shreds, looking like an old torn piece of rag. With his plane in such condition, no wonder the pilot was unable to continue fighting!

A Zero which had taken that many bullets would have been a ball of fire by now. In combat with an F6F or F4U, the only positive thing that could be said of the Zero at this stage of the war was that, in the hands of a skillful pilot, it could maneuver as well as most of its opponents.

Due to shortages of high-powered aviation engines and problems with planned successor models, the Zero remained in production until , with over 10, of all variants produced.

During an air raid over Dutch Harbor on 4 June , one A6M fighter was hit by ground-based anti-aircraft fire. Koga died instantly of head injuries his neck was broken by the tremendous impact , but his wingmen hoped he had survived and so went against Japanese doctrine to destroy disabled Zeros.

The A6M's airframe was "built like a fine watch"; the Zero was constructed with flush rivets , and even the guns were flush with the wings. The instrument panel was a "marvel of simplicity… with no superfluities to distract [the pilot]".

What most impressed the experts was that the Zero's fuselage and wings were constructed in one piece, unlike the American method that built them separately and joined the two parts together.

The Japanese method was much slower, but resulted in a very strong structure and improved close maneuverability. Testing also revealed that the Zero could not roll as quickly to the right as it could to the left, which could be exploited.

Most lacked self-sealing tanks and armor plating. The Zero had ruled the roost totally and was the finest fighter in the world until mid It first flew on 1 April, and passed testing within a remarkably short period.

By September, it had already been accepted for Navy testing as the A6M1 Type 0 Carrier Fighter, with the only notable change being a switch to a three-bladed propeller to cure a vibration problem.

Mitsubishi had its own engine of this class in the form of the Kinsei , so they were somewhat reluctant to use the Sakae. Nevertheless, when the first A6M2 was completed in January , the Sakae's extra power pushed the performance of the Zero well past the original specifications.

The new version was so promising that the Navy had 15 built and shipped to China before they had completed testing.

They arrived in Manchuria in July , and first saw combat over Chungking in August. There they proved to be completely untouchable by the Polikarpov Is and Is that had been such a problem for the A5Ms when in service.

In one encounter, 13 Zeros shot down 27 Is and Is in under three minutes without loss. After hearing of these reports, the navy immediately ordered the A6M2 into production as the Type 0 Carrier Fighter, Model Reports of the Zero's performance filtered back to the US slowly.

There they were dismissed by most military officials, who thought it was impossible for the Japanese to build such an aircraft.

After the delivery of the 65th aircraft, a further change was worked into the production lines, which introduced folding wingtips to allow them to fit on aircraft carriers.

When the lines switched to updated models, Model 21s had been completed by Mitsubishi, and another by Nakajima. Two other versions of the Model 21 were built in small numbers, the Nakajima-built A6M2-N "Rufe" floatplane based on the Model 11 with a slightly modified tail , and the A6M2-K two-seat trainer of which a total of were built by Hitachi and the Sasebo Naval Air Arsenal.

A prototype Zero with the new engine was first flown on 15 July The new Sakae was slightly heavier and somewhat longer due to the larger supercharger, which moved the center of gravity too far forward on the existing airframe.

The cowling was redesigned to enlarge the cowl flaps, revise the oil cooler air intake, and move the carburetor air intake to the upper half of the cowling.

The wings were redesigned to reduce span, eliminate the folding tips, and square off the wingtips. The wings also included larger ammunition boxes and thus allowing rounds per cannon.

On the downside, turning and range, which were the strengths of the Model 21, suffered due to smaller ailerons, decreased lift and greater fuel consumption.

The shorter range proved a significant limitation during the Solomons Campaign, during which Zeros based at Rabaul had to travel nearly to their maximum range to reach Guadalcanal and return.

In order to correct the deficiencies of the Model 32, a new version with folding wingtips and redesigned wing was introduced.

More importantly, it regained its capabilities for long operating ranges, similar to the previous A6M2 Model 21, which was vastly shortened by the Model However, before the new design type was accepted formally by the Navy, the A6M3 Model 22 already stood ready for service in December Approximately aircraft of the new type had been produced in the meantime by Mitsubishi Jukogyo K.

According to a theory, the very late production Model 22 might have had wings similar to the shortened, rounded-tip wing of the Model While the engine cowling is the same of previous Model 32 and 22, the theory proposes that the plane is an early production Model Mitsubishi is unable to state with certainty that it ever used the designation "A6M4" or model numbers for it.

Some researchers believe "A6M4" was applied to one or two prototype planes fitted with an experimental turbo-supercharged Sakae engine designed for high altitude.

It shows a turbo unit mounted in the forward left fuselage. Lack of suitable alloys for use in the manufacture of a turbo-supercharger and its related ducting caused numerous ruptures, resulting in fires and poor performance.

Consequently, further development of a turbo-supercharged A6M was cancelled. The lack of acceptance by the navy suggests that the navy did not bestow model number 41 or 42 formally, although it appears that the arsenal did use the designation "A6M4".

The prototype engines nevertheless provided useful experience for future engine designs. Sometimes considered as the most effective variant, [48] the Model 52 was developed to again shorten the wings to increase speed and dispense with the folding wing mechanism.

In addition, ailerons, aileron trim tab and flaps were revised. The prototype was made in June by modifying an A6M3 and was first flown in August Research by Mr.

Bunzo Komine published by Mr. Kenji Miyazaki states that aircraft through had the same exhaust system and cowl flaps as on the Model Stan Gajda and Mr.

Halls, production number and , respectively. A new exhaust system provided an increment of thrust by aiming the stacks aft and distributing them around the forward fuselage.

The new exhaust system required "notched" cowl flaps and heat shields just aft of the stacks. Note, however, that the handling manual translation states that the new style of exhaust commenced with number Whether this is correct, indicates retrofitting intentions, refers to the prototype but not to all subsequent planes, or is in error is not clear.

From production number , the wing fuel tanks received carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. This caused hot exhaust to burn the forward edge of the landing gear doors and heat the tires.

Therefore, from number Mitsubishi began to install shorter bottom stacks. Perhaps seven Model 52 planes were ostensibly converted into A6M5-K two-seat trainers.

The A6M6 was developed to use the Sakae 31a engine, featuring water-methanol engine boost and self-sealing wing tanks. Only one prototype was produced.

The A6M7 was the last variant to see service. Entering production in May , [9] [78] [80] [79] the A6M7 was also used in the special attack role.

The carburetor intake was much larger, a long duct like that on the Nakajima B6N Tenzan was added, and a large spinner—like that on the Yokosuka D4Y Suisei with the Kinsei 62—was mounted.

The armament consisted of two Two prototypes were completed in April but the chaotic situation of Japanese industry and the end of the war obstructed the start of the ambitious program of production for 6, A6M8s, only the two prototypes being completed and flown.

Like many surviving World War II Japanese aircraft, most surviving Zeros are made up of parts from multiple airframes. As a result, some are referred to by conflicting manufacturer serial numbers.

In other cases, such as those recovered after decades in a wrecked condition, they have been reconstructed to the point that the majority of their structure is made up of modern parts.

All of this means the identities of survivors can be difficult to confirm. Most flying Zeros have had their engines replaced with similar American units.

The rarity of flyable Zeros accounts for the use of single-seat North American T-6 Texans , with heavily modified fuselages and painted in Japanese markings, as substitutes for Zeros in the films Tora!

One Model 52 was used during the production of Pearl Harbor. Winds, 2. Lightning, 3. Nighttime lights, 4. Mountains, 5. Seas, 7. Clouds, 8. Plants, 9.

Skies, Landscapes, and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Japanese carrier-based fighter aircraft. Play media.

Japan portal Aviation portal. Pacific Wrecks Incorporated. Retrieved 23 February Retrieved: 18 January Oxford, Great Britain: Osprey.

Retrieved: 22 November Retrieved: 5 July Action Reports: Battle of Midway. Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 18 March Ace pilots.

Retrieved: 13 October Retrieved: 30 November Fighters of the 20th Century. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Retrieved 9 June Oleson, James A. Oleson United States: iUniverse, Inc. Aircraft of World War Two. Mitsubishi A6M Zero. Great Britain: Osprey Publishing.

Great Britain: Bounty Books. United Kingdom: Amber Books. Fighter Zero. Edizioni R. Smith, Peter-Brown Mitsubishi Zero: Japan's Legendary Fighter.

Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 2 January Australian Aviation Heritage Centre.

Archived from the original on 29 February Retrieved 22 February The typical Japanese water heater is tankless and heats water on demand.

One heater may supply both bath and kitchen. However, many homes have two or more heaters. Recently, electric water heaters eco-friendly ones have been introduced for home owners.

These eco-friendly electric water heaters heat the water in a tank during mid night hours when electricity is cheapest for use the following day.

Modern homes in Japan will have a small washing machine, but most will not have a clothes dryer as most Japanese hang clothes out to dry on the balcony [19] or in the bathroom, if it is heated.

Laundromats are found throughout Japan. Likewise, even for homes with washing machines, only a small percentage have dryers. Many homes include at least one traditional Japanese styled room, or washitsu.

It features tatami flooring, shoji rather than draperies covering the window, fusuma opaque sliding vertical partitions separating it from the other rooms, an oshiire closet with two levels for storing futons , and a wooden ceiling.

It might be unfurnished, and function as a family room during the day and a bedroom at night. Many washitsu have sliding glass doors opening onto a deck or balcony.

Other bedrooms, as well as living rooms, dining rooms, and kitchens, are in a Western style. They usually have modern synthetic floor coverings.

Ceilings are typically also synthetic, and might be white or beige. Windows usually open by sliding laterally, although many kitchen windows open by tilting, with the bottom slanting outwards.

It is the functional equivalent of the Western-style studio apartment. These units are most often rented by single individuals due to their extremely small size; it is hard for more than one person to reside in them.

Space heating rather than central heating is normal in Japanese homes. Kerosene , gas , and electric units are common. Apartments are often rented without heating or cooling equipment but with empty duct space run, allowing the installation of heat pump units.

Occupants purchase appliances and take them when they move. Traditional Japanese buildings do not use insulation, and insulation may even be omitted in modern construction, especially in the low-end apartments; nor is insulated glazing traditionally used in windows, with these being generally single-pane.

Insulated and centrally heated homes in the northern part of Japan are warmer than many homes in warmer parts of Japan and often use double-pane glass.

The simplest kerosene burner has a tank for fuel, a mantle, and a control dial. Battery-operated electric ignition is a popular step up.

The next rank has an electric fan to circulate hot air through the room. Many such units feature computer control of temperature. The computer can also turn them on and off on schedule.

Gas heaters are popular, and many homes have gas outlets in rooms to accommodate portable units. Windows in many homes have vents to open to protect the occupants from excessive exhaust gas.

Kerosene and gas units have safety features to turn off the fire and cut off the fuel supply when the heater receives a shake, whether from an accident or earthquake.

These units usually shut off automatically after two or three hours to prevent carbon monoxide fumes from building up while the resident is sleeping.

Another type of kerosene heater functions similar to a radiator and consists of two parts. Kerosene fuel is stored in a tank and burned outside the home, and the flame heats a fluid that is circulated into the second unit inside the house.

In this unit, fans blow across the tubes carrying the heated fluid, and the room is warmed as a result. This type of heater is popular since it reduces the fumes significantly and virtually eliminates the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning as well as the chance of a small child or pet accidentally injuring themselves.

Electric heat is typically delivered through heat pump units mounted on the ceilings or the walls, such as above the doors to the deck or balcony, rather than through baseboards.

Thermostatic control and timers are available in most lines. The manufacturers of electric and electronic appliances produce these heaters.

Underfloor heating is found in houses or condominiums in the warmer parts of Japan but not for apartments.

The cost is expensive, so sometimes this type of heater is only installed in limited areas such as living room or "clothes changing room".

Electric carpets have become popular in recent years. Finally, a traditional type of heater known as a kotatsu is still widely used today. The kotatsu can come in multiple forms, but the more common is as an electric heating element attached to the underside of a low table: The table is typically surrounded by a light duvet-like cloth to keep the heat in.

This type of table is common in the washitsu. Most Japanese dwellings are connected to the nation's power grid by using 3-wire system with standard phase-neutral voltage of V.

Few V outlets may also exist for connecting induction heating stove or large air conditioner. Circuit breakers of 30 to 60 amperes is typical for most electrical distribution boards.

Many domestic appliances operate properly at either frequency auto-sensing. Outlets resemble those formerly used in the North America see comparison , with two vertical slots.

The older outlets are un-polarized and many sockets lack proper grounding. Outlets in the kitchen, toilet, and bathroom, as well as those supplied by the ceiling for air-conditioning units do usually have a third grounding terminal, either in the form of a 3-pin outlet or a covered binding port.

Devices designed for use with water, such as clothes washers and heated toilet seats, often have a separate earth wire or earth ground pin. Cheater plug adapters are readily available to convert such 3-pin plugs and so allow their use in all types of 2-pin sockets.

Since , new Japanese homes are required to have 3-pin earthed outlets for connecting domestic appliances. This rule does not apply for the outlets not intended to be used for domestic appliances, but it is strongly advised to have 3-pin outlets throughout the home.

Lighting equipment, like heaters, is normally the provenance of the occupant. Many homes do not include built-in ceiling lights in the living, dining, and bedrooms.

Instead, they have ceiling receptacles that provide both electrical connection and mechanical support for lighting equipment.

There are four common types of ceiling connectors and these will generally also support the weight of the light fitting. Kitchens, bathrooms, corridors and genkan are likely to have built-in ceiling fixtures.

Lighting is generally by fluorescent lamps and LED lamps , and most frequently in living areas features a 4-way switch.

Outside of the downtown areas of large cities, many Japanese people park their cars at or near their homes.

Some single-family houses have built-in garages; others have carports or unsheltered spaces on the grounds.

Apartment and condominium buildings frequently have parking lots, some occupying for example the first floor i. Elevator parking allows double use of limited space: one car parks below ground level, with an elevator raising it when needed; the other parks at ground level.

More elaborate elevator arrangements are also in use. Many single-family residences are constructed by nationwide manufacturers such as Matsushita under the name PanaHome , Misawa Home, Mitsui , and Sumitomo Forestry.

Some such companies maintain parks with model homes to show to prospective buyers. The builders of a condominium may open a unit to show prospective buyers; alternatively, they may construct a separate model room elsewhere.

Makers of appliances similarly operate showrooms to display their products. For freestanding houses, wood frames are popular. Two-by-four construction is an alternative to the native style.

Houses may be clad in siding or faced with ceramic tile. Interiors often have drywall , painted or with a wall covering. Tile is a common roofing material; it may be fired clay or concrete.

Clay tiles often bear a color and a glaze. Large buildings are typically constructed of reinforced concrete. Roofs coverings include asphalt and synthetics.

The usual maximum allowed height of a wooden building in Japan is two stories; however, using some new technology, some three story wooden buildings are currently allowed if they meet the building codes.

Some wooden houses may have lofts, but these may not be used as bedrooms, only for storage space. Steel and concrete buildings may have more stories, but usually they only have two.

Basements are uncommon in private homes but common in high-rise buildings. Building coverage ratio is the ratio of the building footprint compared to the total area of the land.

Both maximum values vary according to the location of the land and width of facing roadway, with more built-up areas with wider roads generally allowing greater maximum floorspace, and building coverage dictated by factors such as frontage, nearby roads, and construction materials.

Additionally, the number of floors in a structure may be restricted, in order to avoid excessive blockage of light to neighboring properties.

The taxable value of a house is controlled by its building material. Wooden houses are considered to have a lifespan of twenty years, and concrete ones to have a lifespan of thirty years, and the assessed price depreciates each year contrary to housing markets in other nations.

Most real estate agents also use this pricing policy as a rough guide [ citation needed ]. Although there are still some wooden homes almost years old with thatched roofs and concrete buildings well over the 30 year depreciation price, taxing is based upon the above method.

After marriage, the young couple often live in the same house as their parents. Conversely, in large metropolitan areas of Japan, it is no longer uncommon for young couples to co-habit in an apartment before they marry.

Traditionally, the elderly also continue to live with their children rather than being put into homes for the elderly. The number of elderly people living at home has led to a great demand for care products for home use, and also the so-called "barrier-free" housing, which contains fewer steps and obstacles for the elderly.

Apartment sharing between strangers is rare in Japan, most single people preferring to live in small sized individual apartments.

However, in recent years, as Japan is undergoing demographic and socioeconomic change, it is becoming more common for young people to share apartments.

Apartment designs are many and varied. Japanese companies and organizations often send their male employees to various locations throughout Japan.

It is not always possible or desirable for the entire family unit to move near the employee's new job site.

In this case, small apartments are rented by married men who then travel to the family home either every weekend, once every two weeks or once a month depending on the distance and the company policy.

Because of the high cost of housing in major Japanese cities, many urban families and individuals rent apartments rather than owning their own home.

In , less than half of the living units in Tokyo were owned by the resident. On the other hand, rural areas tend to have much higher ownership rates.

The living space of houses and condominiums is larger than apartments. The average size of an owned residence in Japan is This varies wildly between major urban areas Tokyo: On diagrams of the house, individual room sizes are usually measured in tatami, as described above in the interior design section.

As houses age, owners replace them. A common pattern is to rebuild on the same site. To accomplish this, the occupants move to a temporary residence.

A contractor demolishes the old structure and builds a new one on the grounds. The residents can then return to the location. Not having moved, they enjoy the convenience of keeping the same address, telephone number, and utility accounts, as well as avoid the cost of purchasing new land.

Because of the wooden construction and relatively short lifespan of Japanese houses, this is often considered cheaper than maintaining the old structure.

As residential building regulations change, particularly in terms of setback requirements and coverage ratios, rebuilding on the same site can potentially result in a house significantly smaller than the original.

To get around this, homeowners will sometimes demolish all but the minimum required by law to qualify as a "renovation" rather than a "rebuilding".

This has been the source of some debate. To rent an apartment in Japan, would-be tenants visit real estate agents located in every neighborhood and browse through copies of apartments for rent.

These usually have the layout of the apartment for rent and the costs to rent this apartment.

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Called " extra super duralumin " ESD , it was lighter, stronger and more ductile than other alloys e.

No armour protection was provided for the pilot, engine or other critical points of the aircraft, and self-sealing fuel tanks , which were becoming common at the time, were not used.

This made the Zero lighter, more maneuverable, and the longest-ranged single-engine fighter of World War II, which made it capable of searching out an enemy hundreds of kilometres away, bringing it to battle, then returning to its base or aircraft carrier.

However, that tradeoff in weight and construction also made it prone to catching fire and exploding when struck by enemy fire. With its low-wing cantilever monoplane layout, retractable, wide-set conventional landing gear and enclosed cockpit, the Zero was one of the most modern carrier-based aircraft in the world at the time of its introduction.

It had a fairly high-lift, low-speed wing with very low wing loading. This was the main reason for its phenomenal maneuverability, allowing it to out-turn any Allied fighter of the time.

They were discontinued on later models after it was found that the lightened control forces were causing pilots to overstress the wings during vigorous maneuvers.

In the official designation "A6M", the "A" signified a carrier-based fighter, "6" meant that it was the sixth such model built for the Imperial Navy, and "M" indicated Mitsubishi as the manufacturer.

The official Allied code name was "Zeke", in keeping with the practice of giving male names to Japanese fighters, female names to bombers , bird names to gliders , and tree names to trainers.

Later, two variants of the fighter received their own code names. At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor , Zeros were active in the Pacific, in first-line units.

The Zero quickly gained a fearsome reputation. Claire Lee Chennault had to notice. Allied pilots soon developed tactics to cope with the Zero.

Due to its extreme agility, engaging a Zero in a traditional, turning dogfight was likely to be fatal. A short burst of fire from heavy machine guns or cannon was often enough to bring down the fragile Zero.

These tactics were regularly employed by Grumman F4F Wildcat fighters during Guadalcanal defense through high-altitude ambush, which was possible due to early warning system consisted of Coastwatchers and radar.

AVG pilots were trained by their commander Claire Chennault to exploit the advantages of their Ps , which were very sturdy, heavily armed, generally faster in a dive and level flight at low altitude, with a good rate of roll.

Another important maneuver was Lieutenant Commander John S. If a Zero latched onto the tail of one of the fighters, the two aircraft would turn toward each other.

If the Zero followed his original target through the turn, he would come into a position to be fired on by the target's wingman. This tactic was first used to good effect during the Battle of Midway and later over the Solomon Islands.

Many highly experienced Japanese aviators were lost in combat, resulting in a progressive decline in quality, which became a significant factor in Allied successes.

Unexpected heavy losses of pilots at the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway dealt the Japanese carrier air force a blow from which it never fully recovered.

The fighter pilots are very disappointed with the performance and length of sustained fire power of the F4F-4 airplanes. The Zero fighters could easily outmaneuver and out-climb the F4F-3, and the consensus of fighter pilot opinion is that the F4F-4 is even more sluggish and slow than the F4F It is also felt that it was a mistake to put 6 guns on the F4F-4 and thus to reduce the rounds per gun.

Many of our fighters ran out of ammunition even before the Jap dive bombers arrived over our forces; these were experienced pilots, not novices.

They were astounded by the Zero's superiority: [30]. In the Coral Sea, they made all their approaches from the rear or high side and did relatively little damage because of our armor.

It also is desired to call attention to the fact that there was an absence of the fancy stunting during pull outs or approaches for attacks. In this battle, the Japs dove in, made the attack and then immediately pulled out, taking advantage of their superior climb and maneuverability.

In attacking fighters, the Zeros usually attacked from above rear at high speed and recovered by climbing vertically until they lost some speed and then pulled on through to complete a small loop of high wing over which placed them out of reach and in position for another attack.

By reversing the turn sharply after each attack the leader may get a shot at the enemy while he is climbing away or head on into a scissor if the Jap turns to meet it.

In contrast, Allied fighters were designed with ruggedness and pilot protection in mind. I had full confidence in my ability to destroy the Grumman and decided to finish off the enemy fighter with only my 7.

I turned the 20mm cannon switch to the 'off' position, and closed in. For some strange reason, even after I had poured about five or six hundred rounds of ammunition directly into the Grumman, the airplane did not fall, but kept on flying!

I thought this very odd—it had never happened before—and closed the distance between the two airplanes until I could almost reach out and touch the Grumman.

To my surprise, the Grumman's rudder and tail were torn to shreds, looking like an old torn piece of rag. With his plane in such condition, no wonder the pilot was unable to continue fighting!

A Zero which had taken that many bullets would have been a ball of fire by now. In combat with an F6F or F4U, the only positive thing that could be said of the Zero at this stage of the war was that, in the hands of a skillful pilot, it could maneuver as well as most of its opponents.

Due to shortages of high-powered aviation engines and problems with planned successor models, the Zero remained in production until , with over 10, of all variants produced.

During an air raid over Dutch Harbor on 4 June , one A6M fighter was hit by ground-based anti-aircraft fire.

Koga died instantly of head injuries his neck was broken by the tremendous impact , but his wingmen hoped he had survived and so went against Japanese doctrine to destroy disabled Zeros.

The A6M's airframe was "built like a fine watch"; the Zero was constructed with flush rivets , and even the guns were flush with the wings.

The instrument panel was a "marvel of simplicity… with no superfluities to distract [the pilot]".

What most impressed the experts was that the Zero's fuselage and wings were constructed in one piece, unlike the American method that built them separately and joined the two parts together.

The Japanese method was much slower, but resulted in a very strong structure and improved close maneuverability. Testing also revealed that the Zero could not roll as quickly to the right as it could to the left, which could be exploited.

Most lacked self-sealing tanks and armor plating. The Zero had ruled the roost totally and was the finest fighter in the world until mid It first flew on 1 April, and passed testing within a remarkably short period.

By September, it had already been accepted for Navy testing as the A6M1 Type 0 Carrier Fighter, with the only notable change being a switch to a three-bladed propeller to cure a vibration problem.

Mitsubishi had its own engine of this class in the form of the Kinsei , so they were somewhat reluctant to use the Sakae. Nevertheless, when the first A6M2 was completed in January , the Sakae's extra power pushed the performance of the Zero well past the original specifications.

The new version was so promising that the Navy had 15 built and shipped to China before they had completed testing.

They arrived in Manchuria in July , and first saw combat over Chungking in August. There they proved to be completely untouchable by the Polikarpov Is and Is that had been such a problem for the A5Ms when in service.

In one encounter, 13 Zeros shot down 27 Is and Is in under three minutes without loss. After hearing of these reports, the navy immediately ordered the A6M2 into production as the Type 0 Carrier Fighter, Model Reports of the Zero's performance filtered back to the US slowly.

There they were dismissed by most military officials, who thought it was impossible for the Japanese to build such an aircraft.

After the delivery of the 65th aircraft, a further change was worked into the production lines, which introduced folding wingtips to allow them to fit on aircraft carriers.

When the lines switched to updated models, Model 21s had been completed by Mitsubishi, and another by Nakajima. Two other versions of the Model 21 were built in small numbers, the Nakajima-built A6M2-N "Rufe" floatplane based on the Model 11 with a slightly modified tail , and the A6M2-K two-seat trainer of which a total of were built by Hitachi and the Sasebo Naval Air Arsenal.

A prototype Zero with the new engine was first flown on 15 July The new Sakae was slightly heavier and somewhat longer due to the larger supercharger, which moved the center of gravity too far forward on the existing airframe.

The cowling was redesigned to enlarge the cowl flaps, revise the oil cooler air intake, and move the carburetor air intake to the upper half of the cowling.

The wings were redesigned to reduce span, eliminate the folding tips, and square off the wingtips. The wings also included larger ammunition boxes and thus allowing rounds per cannon.

On the downside, turning and range, which were the strengths of the Model 21, suffered due to smaller ailerons, decreased lift and greater fuel consumption.

The shorter range proved a significant limitation during the Solomons Campaign, during which Zeros based at Rabaul had to travel nearly to their maximum range to reach Guadalcanal and return.

In order to correct the deficiencies of the Model 32, a new version with folding wingtips and redesigned wing was introduced.

More importantly, it regained its capabilities for long operating ranges, similar to the previous A6M2 Model 21, which was vastly shortened by the Model However, before the new design type was accepted formally by the Navy, the A6M3 Model 22 already stood ready for service in December Approximately aircraft of the new type had been produced in the meantime by Mitsubishi Jukogyo K.

According to a theory, the very late production Model 22 might have had wings similar to the shortened, rounded-tip wing of the Model While the engine cowling is the same of previous Model 32 and 22, the theory proposes that the plane is an early production Model Mitsubishi is unable to state with certainty that it ever used the designation "A6M4" or model numbers for it.

Some researchers believe "A6M4" was applied to one or two prototype planes fitted with an experimental turbo-supercharged Sakae engine designed for high altitude.

It shows a turbo unit mounted in the forward left fuselage. Lack of suitable alloys for use in the manufacture of a turbo-supercharger and its related ducting caused numerous ruptures, resulting in fires and poor performance.

Consequently, further development of a turbo-supercharged A6M was cancelled. The lack of acceptance by the navy suggests that the navy did not bestow model number 41 or 42 formally, although it appears that the arsenal did use the designation "A6M4".

The prototype engines nevertheless provided useful experience for future engine designs. Sometimes considered as the most effective variant, [48] the Model 52 was developed to again shorten the wings to increase speed and dispense with the folding wing mechanism.

In addition, ailerons, aileron trim tab and flaps were revised. The prototype was made in June by modifying an A6M3 and was first flown in August Research by Mr.

Bunzo Komine published by Mr. Kenji Miyazaki states that aircraft through had the same exhaust system and cowl flaps as on the Model Stan Gajda and Mr.

Halls, production number and , respectively. A new exhaust system provided an increment of thrust by aiming the stacks aft and distributing them around the forward fuselage.

The new exhaust system required "notched" cowl flaps and heat shields just aft of the stacks. Note, however, that the handling manual translation states that the new style of exhaust commenced with number Whether this is correct, indicates retrofitting intentions, refers to the prototype but not to all subsequent planes, or is in error is not clear.

From production number , the wing fuel tanks received carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. This caused hot exhaust to burn the forward edge of the landing gear doors and heat the tires.

Therefore, from number Mitsubishi began to install shorter bottom stacks. Perhaps seven Model 52 planes were ostensibly converted into A6M5-K two-seat trainers.

The A6M6 was developed to use the Sakae 31a engine, featuring water-methanol engine boost and self-sealing wing tanks. Only one prototype was produced.

The A6M7 was the last variant to see service. Entering production in May , [9] [78] [80] [79] the A6M7 was also used in the special attack role.

The carburetor intake was much larger, a long duct like that on the Nakajima B6N Tenzan was added, and a large spinner—like that on the Yokosuka D4Y Suisei with the Kinsei 62—was mounted.

The armament consisted of two Two prototypes were completed in April but the chaotic situation of Japanese industry and the end of the war obstructed the start of the ambitious program of production for 6, A6M8s, only the two prototypes being completed and flown.

Like many surviving World War II Japanese aircraft, most surviving Zeros are made up of parts from multiple airframes. As a result, some are referred to by conflicting manufacturer serial numbers.

In other cases, such as those recovered after decades in a wrecked condition, they have been reconstructed to the point that the majority of their structure is made up of modern parts.

All of this means the identities of survivors can be difficult to confirm. Most flying Zeros have had their engines replaced with similar American units.

The rarity of flyable Zeros accounts for the use of single-seat North American T-6 Texans , with heavily modified fuselages and painted in Japanese markings, as substitutes for Zeros in the films Tora!

One Model 52 was used during the production of Pearl Harbor. Winds, 2. Lightning, 3. Nighttime lights, 4. Mountains, 5.

Seas, 7. Clouds, 8. Plants, 9. Skies, Landscapes, and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Japanese carrier-based fighter aircraft. Play media.

Japan portal Aviation portal. Pacific Wrecks Incorporated. Retrieved 23 February Retrieved: 18 January Oxford, Great Britain: Osprey.

Retrieved: 22 November Retrieved: 5 July Action Reports: Battle of Midway. Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 18 March Ace pilots.

Retrieved: 13 October Retrieved: 30 November Fighters of the 20th Century. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Retrieved 9 June Insulated and centrally heated homes in the northern part of Japan are warmer than many homes in warmer parts of Japan and often use double-pane glass.

The simplest kerosene burner has a tank for fuel, a mantle, and a control dial. Battery-operated electric ignition is a popular step up.

The next rank has an electric fan to circulate hot air through the room. Many such units feature computer control of temperature. The computer can also turn them on and off on schedule.

Gas heaters are popular, and many homes have gas outlets in rooms to accommodate portable units. Windows in many homes have vents to open to protect the occupants from excessive exhaust gas.

Kerosene and gas units have safety features to turn off the fire and cut off the fuel supply when the heater receives a shake, whether from an accident or earthquake.

These units usually shut off automatically after two or three hours to prevent carbon monoxide fumes from building up while the resident is sleeping.

Another type of kerosene heater functions similar to a radiator and consists of two parts. Kerosene fuel is stored in a tank and burned outside the home, and the flame heats a fluid that is circulated into the second unit inside the house.

In this unit, fans blow across the tubes carrying the heated fluid, and the room is warmed as a result. This type of heater is popular since it reduces the fumes significantly and virtually eliminates the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning as well as the chance of a small child or pet accidentally injuring themselves.

Electric heat is typically delivered through heat pump units mounted on the ceilings or the walls, such as above the doors to the deck or balcony, rather than through baseboards.

Thermostatic control and timers are available in most lines. The manufacturers of electric and electronic appliances produce these heaters.

Underfloor heating is found in houses or condominiums in the warmer parts of Japan but not for apartments. The cost is expensive, so sometimes this type of heater is only installed in limited areas such as living room or "clothes changing room".

Electric carpets have become popular in recent years. Finally, a traditional type of heater known as a kotatsu is still widely used today.

The kotatsu can come in multiple forms, but the more common is as an electric heating element attached to the underside of a low table: The table is typically surrounded by a light duvet-like cloth to keep the heat in.

This type of table is common in the washitsu. Most Japanese dwellings are connected to the nation's power grid by using 3-wire system with standard phase-neutral voltage of V.

Few V outlets may also exist for connecting induction heating stove or large air conditioner. Circuit breakers of 30 to 60 amperes is typical for most electrical distribution boards.

Many domestic appliances operate properly at either frequency auto-sensing. Outlets resemble those formerly used in the North America see comparison , with two vertical slots.

The older outlets are un-polarized and many sockets lack proper grounding. Outlets in the kitchen, toilet, and bathroom, as well as those supplied by the ceiling for air-conditioning units do usually have a third grounding terminal, either in the form of a 3-pin outlet or a covered binding port.

Devices designed for use with water, such as clothes washers and heated toilet seats, often have a separate earth wire or earth ground pin.

Cheater plug adapters are readily available to convert such 3-pin plugs and so allow their use in all types of 2-pin sockets.

Since , new Japanese homes are required to have 3-pin earthed outlets for connecting domestic appliances. This rule does not apply for the outlets not intended to be used for domestic appliances, but it is strongly advised to have 3-pin outlets throughout the home.

Lighting equipment, like heaters, is normally the provenance of the occupant. Many homes do not include built-in ceiling lights in the living, dining, and bedrooms.

Instead, they have ceiling receptacles that provide both electrical connection and mechanical support for lighting equipment.

There are four common types of ceiling connectors and these will generally also support the weight of the light fitting. Kitchens, bathrooms, corridors and genkan are likely to have built-in ceiling fixtures.

Lighting is generally by fluorescent lamps and LED lamps , and most frequently in living areas features a 4-way switch.

Outside of the downtown areas of large cities, many Japanese people park their cars at or near their homes. Some single-family houses have built-in garages; others have carports or unsheltered spaces on the grounds.

Apartment and condominium buildings frequently have parking lots, some occupying for example the first floor i. Elevator parking allows double use of limited space: one car parks below ground level, with an elevator raising it when needed; the other parks at ground level.

More elaborate elevator arrangements are also in use. Many single-family residences are constructed by nationwide manufacturers such as Matsushita under the name PanaHome , Misawa Home, Mitsui , and Sumitomo Forestry.

Some such companies maintain parks with model homes to show to prospective buyers. The builders of a condominium may open a unit to show prospective buyers; alternatively, they may construct a separate model room elsewhere.

Makers of appliances similarly operate showrooms to display their products. For freestanding houses, wood frames are popular. Two-by-four construction is an alternative to the native style.

Houses may be clad in siding or faced with ceramic tile. Interiors often have drywall , painted or with a wall covering.

Tile is a common roofing material; it may be fired clay or concrete. Clay tiles often bear a color and a glaze. Large buildings are typically constructed of reinforced concrete.

Roofs coverings include asphalt and synthetics. The usual maximum allowed height of a wooden building in Japan is two stories; however, using some new technology, some three story wooden buildings are currently allowed if they meet the building codes.

Some wooden houses may have lofts, but these may not be used as bedrooms, only for storage space. Steel and concrete buildings may have more stories, but usually they only have two.

Basements are uncommon in private homes but common in high-rise buildings. Building coverage ratio is the ratio of the building footprint compared to the total area of the land.

Both maximum values vary according to the location of the land and width of facing roadway, with more built-up areas with wider roads generally allowing greater maximum floorspace, and building coverage dictated by factors such as frontage, nearby roads, and construction materials.

Additionally, the number of floors in a structure may be restricted, in order to avoid excessive blockage of light to neighboring properties.

The taxable value of a house is controlled by its building material. Wooden houses are considered to have a lifespan of twenty years, and concrete ones to have a lifespan of thirty years, and the assessed price depreciates each year contrary to housing markets in other nations.

Most real estate agents also use this pricing policy as a rough guide [ citation needed ]. Although there are still some wooden homes almost years old with thatched roofs and concrete buildings well over the 30 year depreciation price, taxing is based upon the above method.

After marriage, the young couple often live in the same house as their parents. Conversely, in large metropolitan areas of Japan, it is no longer uncommon for young couples to co-habit in an apartment before they marry.

Traditionally, the elderly also continue to live with their children rather than being put into homes for the elderly. The number of elderly people living at home has led to a great demand for care products for home use, and also the so-called "barrier-free" housing, which contains fewer steps and obstacles for the elderly.

Apartment sharing between strangers is rare in Japan, most single people preferring to live in small sized individual apartments.

However, in recent years, as Japan is undergoing demographic and socioeconomic change, it is becoming more common for young people to share apartments.

Apartment designs are many and varied. Japanese companies and organizations often send their male employees to various locations throughout Japan.

It is not always possible or desirable for the entire family unit to move near the employee's new job site.

In this case, small apartments are rented by married men who then travel to the family home either every weekend, once every two weeks or once a month depending on the distance and the company policy.

Because of the high cost of housing in major Japanese cities, many urban families and individuals rent apartments rather than owning their own home.

In , less than half of the living units in Tokyo were owned by the resident. On the other hand, rural areas tend to have much higher ownership rates.

The living space of houses and condominiums is larger than apartments. The average size of an owned residence in Japan is This varies wildly between major urban areas Tokyo: On diagrams of the house, individual room sizes are usually measured in tatami, as described above in the interior design section.

As houses age, owners replace them. A common pattern is to rebuild on the same site. To accomplish this, the occupants move to a temporary residence.

A contractor demolishes the old structure and builds a new one on the grounds. The residents can then return to the location.

Not having moved, they enjoy the convenience of keeping the same address, telephone number, and utility accounts, as well as avoid the cost of purchasing new land.

Because of the wooden construction and relatively short lifespan of Japanese houses, this is often considered cheaper than maintaining the old structure.

As residential building regulations change, particularly in terms of setback requirements and coverage ratios, rebuilding on the same site can potentially result in a house significantly smaller than the original.

To get around this, homeowners will sometimes demolish all but the minimum required by law to qualify as a "renovation" rather than a "rebuilding".

This has been the source of some debate. To rent an apartment in Japan, would-be tenants visit real estate agents located in every neighborhood and browse through copies of apartments for rent.

These usually have the layout of the apartment for rent and the costs to rent this apartment. If a would-be tenant is interested in a particular apartment, the agent contacts the landlord to see if the apartment is still available and whether a visit could be arranged.

Typically, a renter cannot rent an apartment on her or his own, but is required to have a guarantor who promises to pay the rent if problems arise.

Traditionally, Japanese landlords collect both a damage deposit and " key money " before the renter takes occupancy, and the real estate agent is also paid a month's rent for services provided.

Key money is a non-refundable payment to the landlord. In major cities like Tokyo and Osaka, key money is often a major investment in itself: up to six months' rent in many cases.

In recent years many landlords have begun demanding smaller amounts of key money, equal to two or three months' rent or none at all.

An industry of no-deposit apartments, called monthly mansion and weekly mansion , has also sprouted up in major cities: these generally charge higher rents than traditional leases, and may offer some hotel-style amenities such as linen service.

In Tokyo, a typical rental agreement is for one year. In many other cities, however, the one-year agreement is regarded simply as a minimum length of stay, and the rent does not normally change over the years.

However, as buildings get older and more repairs are required, or as government tax rates go up, a rent increase does occasionally occur.

Foreigners in Japan renting apartments on their own often face discrimination from real estate agents or landlords who refuse to rent to foreigners.

Finding a guarantor is also difficult for many foreigners. Living in a Guest House is one way to circumvent these problems. Sometimes referred to as "Gaijin Houses" meaning foreign persons' house , Guest Houses come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

They are designed to provide short-term accommodation at reasonable prices with a minimum of hassle. Usually aimed at foreign visitors, they are becoming increasingly popular with young Japanese seeking to break with the tradition of living with parents until, and sometimes after, marriage.

While deposits are payable in most cases they tend to be low and the famous Japanese key money is not charged for these properties.

A guest house will provide one room for sleeping, a shared kitchen and shared bathroom. Facilities like washing machines are usually coin-operated, but due to intense competition many landlords are seeking to provide as many free utilities as they can; free internet is almost a given in Tokyo these days.

Typically, foreigners and Japanese are finding it harder to find guest houses and have been opting for small apartments : "apaato". Many Japanese companies also maintain their own apartment buildings called shataku where young employees live when they first start working.

Sometimes, the shataku is located near the company's office building. In other cases, the company may not own its own apartment complex, but hold an exclusive lease over one or more independent apartment buildings.

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